[+] About
Fabricating data in reports undetectably requires a good understanding of how sampling error is expected to influence the data.
Estimates drawn from random samples should exhibit a certain type of variation given the observed sample size and design.
Therefore, means and standard deviations can be analyzed to determine if data was created rather than naturally observed.
This calculator allows you to examine whether the estimates of means and standard deviations across independent samples are too similar to each other to have originated in random samples.
[+] Instructions
 Enter the specified information from a research paper in the corresponding text boxes (Some example data is provided).
 Enter how many simulated replications (iterations) you would like to conduct.
 Enter the potential minimum and maximum values of the scale that the dependent variable uses.
 Select from the dropdown menu whether you would like to compare the similarity of standard deviations or means.
 If your data can take negative values, mark the checkbox, "Allow negative values".
 When all of the information is entered, press 'Calculate' to begin the analysis.
 Results will appear in the table at the bottom.
[+] Important Notes
When using this calculator, remember that all tools can be used for the benefit of others and also for harm. Therefore, when using them, we should take precautions to avoid the negative consequences. While it is important to be able to detect research misconduct, it is just as important to prevent innocent researchers from accusations of wrongdoing.
Make sure to also take the following measures during any investigation of potential fraud:
 Replicate analyses across multiple papers before suspecting foul play by a given author
 Compare suspected studies to similar ones
 Extend analyses to raw data
 Contact authors privately, transparently, and give them ample time to consider your concerns
 Offer to discuss matters with a trusted statistically savvy advisor
 Give the authors more time
 If after all this suspicions remains, convey them only to entities tasked with investigating such matters, and do so as discreetly as possible.
Results 
Now completing iteration: 

The average psivalue from your paper is:
This is the percentage of a standard error that your means or standard deviations differ from each other on average.


Number of simulated papers found with a psivalue less than your paper:


Pvalue (small numbers suggest that the paper's results are highly implausible): 
